Thursday, January 30, 2020
Translation Studies Lecture Essay Introduction: Translation and Translation Studies Translation and Translation Studies (Definition and a brief history of the discipline) Hermes the god of thieves and liars is also the god of translation. But he has so many other tasks as the god of roads, commerce, travel (these can be connected to translation) as well as arts, magic and crafts not talking about matrimonial matchmakingÃ¢â¬ ¦ A translator has, at least, as many tasks and roles when translating that I hope to show you this term. As a translator, Hermes is a messenger from the gods to humans. As an interpreter who bridges the boundaries with strangers he is a hermeneus. So the word Ã¢â¬Å"hermeneuticsÃ¢â¬ for the art of interpreting hidden meaning can also be traced back to his name. (By the way in Greek a lucky find was also a hermaion. ) What is translation? 1/ oral form is called interpreting or interpretation 2/ written form is called translation that has roughly 2 main categories from our point of view: (a) specialized translation (b) literary translation (Task: Look up the word in different dictionaries and see how different explanations work) e. g translation (an on-line dictionary; mind the phrase underlined: do you agree? ) Ã¢â¬â a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language Ã¢â¬â a uniform movement without rotation (see the meaning of Hungarian word Ã¢â¬ËforditasÃ¢â¬â¢); [cf. Ã¢â¬ËWhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in a Word? Ã¢â¬â¢ my lecture of April 08, 2007 now an article in Faces of English soon in print] Ã¢â¬â the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface etc. The most common explanation: translation is the expression in one language (target language TL) what has been expressed in the source language (SL) Meaning: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the notion of movement btw. languages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¦of some kind of content and context Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¦of obligation to find Ã¢â¬Å"equivalentsÃ¢â¬ (expression commonly used in the 1960s and Ã¢â¬Ë70s; linguistic schools) which Ã¢â¬Å"preserveÃ¢â¬ features of the original Is total equivalence possible? There is no absolute synonymy btw. words in the same language; even less btw. different languages (one of the causes some say it is impossible to translate). Ã¢â¬â sg. Ã¢â¬ËlostÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËgainedÃ¢â¬â¢ in the process Ã¢â¬â translators Ã¢â¬ËbetrayingÃ¢â¬â¢ the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions (cf: Hermes; Italian proverb: traduttore traditore). Ã¢â¬â¢translator is a traitorÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëa fordito ferditoÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kosztolanyi ABECE a forditasrolÃ¢â¬ ¦. Gondolat, 1957) The term Translation has several meanings: Translation Ã¢â¬â the general subject field, the abstract concept encompassing the other two Translating Ã¢â¬â the process, the activity (our main interests during the term) A Translation Ã¢â¬â the product, the translated text, the target language text A theory of translation must explain both the process and the product. Previously it was rather the product theorists tried to analyse, later interest turned towards the process, and translation today is as much about the translation of cultural, political, and historical contexts and concepts as it is about language. (cf. The cultural turn of the 1990s! the emergence of a new discipline called Cultural Studies that uses translation moreover literary translation as its main field of comparative analysis; all these have generated the emergence of an independent discipline called Translation Studies. ) Cf. [translation turn in Cultural Studies; translating cultures is not Ã¢â¬Å"cultural translationÃ¢â¬ ; see Rushdie= a translated man] (LITERARY) TRANSLATION v v Linguistics (applied linguistics) Literature (comparative literature) Both fields dealt with it marginally and created their own translation theories, explanations (by researchers in linguistics and in literature but not translators! ) First linguists: looking for basic similarities in languages Ã¢â¬â computers, machine translation They try to understand the mental process of translation: what happens in the Ã¢â¬Ëblack boxÃ¢â¬â¢ the mind of the translator. (Input and output) 1)Psychological studies: cognitive science (a) perception (b) information processing (encoding and decoding of messages) ( c )memory 2)Language (concerned with psychological a social aspects) (a)psycholinguistics Ã¢â¬â the process in the mind of the translator focus on decoding and encoding (b)sociolinguistics Ã¢â¬â place SLT and TLT in their cultural contexts focus on the participants (nature of the message; how codes are used etc) (results made possible to create computer programmes that work in the case of simple systems such as METEO: weather forecast uses a relatively small vocabulary cf. Lecture 3. ) All translation is communication (and all communication is translation) The basic scheme (monolingual): 1/ receive signals containing messages in a communicative system 2/ deconstruct. 3/ reconstruct (vertical transfer e. g. historical epochs; horizontal transfer: e. g. social classes)Ã¢â¬â(cf. readersÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of a text) The basic scheme ( BILINGUAL ) The translator is a communicator, Ã¢â¬Å"a mediating agentÃ¢â¬ btw. 2 different languages Ã¢â¬â 2 different monolingual language communities; decodes message transmitted in one lang. and re-encodes it in another. The main diff. lies in the encoding, re-encoding process: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the message must be re-encoded into a different language Ã¢â¬ ¢ the same message as received Ã¢â¬ ¢ aimed at a group of receivers who are not the same as the original senderÃ Faced by a text we have to work out 1) the semantic sense of words, sentences Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2) its communicative value 3) its place in time and space 4) information about the participants involved both in its production and reception There are 6 questions to consider: 1 WHAT? Ã¢â¬â message contained in the text 2 WHY? Ã¢â¬â intention of the sender (purpose of the text issued; underlying structure : informing; persuading, flattering etc. but text usually possess more than a single function Ã¢â¬â multiple function Ã¢â¬â task of the receiver to find primary intention, function 3 WHEN? Ã¢â¬â time of communication realized in the text (e. g.historical context; past, present, futureÃ¢â¬ ¦) 4 HOW? Ã¢â¬â a) manner of delivery (serious, ironic); tenor of discourse b) medium of communication (channels: verbal, writingÃ¢â¬ ¦); mode of discourse 5 WHERE? Ã¢â¬â place of communication (physical location realized in text) 6 WHO? Participants involved in communication (sender Ã¢â¬âsource language, receiver Ã¢â¬âtarget language (reveal characteristics of speaker/writer as individual) Lets see the a model of communication in the case of translation proper: 1 translator receives signal 1 containing message 2 recognizes code 1 3 decodes signal 1 source language 4 retrieves messageÃ 5 comprehends message - 6 translator selects code 2 target language 7 encodes message by means of code 2 8 selects channel 9 transmits signal 2 containing message (Bell: 19). As a result: there are 2 codes, 2 signals 2 texts Ã¢â¬â2 sets of content (more than 1 message) as there is no 100% equivalence Ã¢â¬â 2 kinds of explanation Translation process: transformation of SL text into TL text by means of processes, which take place within memory 1) analysis of SL text (language specific) into a non-lang. specific, universal semantic representation (cf.Ã metatext) 2) synthesis of it into another lang. specific (TL) text Theory wonÃ¢â¬â¢t solve translatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems but helps when looking for solutions in particular cases. (more conscious ). What is the unit of translation? Word, phrase, sentence, paragraph Ã¢â¬âbut one has to have the whole text (with its special qualities) in mind when trying to find solutions! What is translation studies? A new academic discipline that is a) multilingual, b) interdisciplinary James Holmes defined it as Ã¢â¬Å"the complex of problems clustered round the phenomenon of translating and translation. It is really the discipline of the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s: 1)a number of specialized translating and interpreting courses (in the UK. at least 20 postgraduate courses in 2000) and even more BA course at departments of translation in a number of European and non-European countries. / A smaller number of schools specialized in literary translation (but nearly everywhere in Europe! ) 2) conferences and workshops (organized by universities and international societies e. g. EST) 3) journals Babel (NL), Meta (Ca), Target (Israel/Belgium)Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4) Publisher specialized on TS: Multilingual Matters, John Benjamins, Rodopi, Routledge, St. Jerome.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
With the appearance of Waiting for Godot at the ThÃ ©Ã ¢tre de Babylone in Paris in 1953, the literary world was shaken by the arrival of a drama so different yet so thrilling that it gave rise to the "Theater of the Absurd". His contribution to this particular type of theater movement allows us to refer to him as the father of the genre. While other dramatists, such as Tom Stoppard, have also contributed to this genre, Beckett remains its single, most lofty figure. It is this type of theater that deals with the absurd aspects of life, to stress upon its native meaninglessness. It is the time and identity of characters that are usually vague or ambiguous in such plays from the theater of absurd. The plays are dreamy and impossible to implement in real life and the dialogues of such plays are irrational and make the play seem absurd because the whole structure of the play is in repetition. In this play, Samuel Beckett emphasizes upon human suffering. The play revolves primarily around Estragon and Vladimir who endlessly wait for something to help overcome their boredom and sins because they seek redemption as mentioned in the play. Godot can be assumed as one of the many wishes that Vladimir and Estragon wait for. Waiting for Godot is part of the Ã¢â¬ËTheater of the AbsurdÃ¢â¬â¢. This implies that it is meant to be irrational and pointless in nature since you do not have a proper moral and conclusion to the play, i.e., it is an open ended play. The readers and audiences can have many conclusions towards the end of the play. The concepts of drama, chronological plot, logical language, themes, and recognizable settings are features of drama that a play from the Theatre of Absurd does not have. We see how the characters of Vladimir and Estrago... ...s with their incoherent colloquy. And above than all, its theme is unexplained meaning that the play does not only have a single theme like adventure or action. Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for GodotÃ¢â¬ is an absurd play for it is devoid of characterization and motivation. Though characters are present but are not recognizable for whatever they do and whatever they present is purposeless. Works Cited Beckett, Samuel. Waiting For Godot. 3rd ed. N.p.: CPI Group, 2006. Print. Vol. 1 of Samuel Beckett: The Complete Dramatic Works. 4 vols http://www.studymode.com/essays/The-Absurdity-In-Waiting-For-Godot-868180.html http://www.gradesaver.com/waiting-for-godot/study-guide/about/ http://www.gradesaver.com/waiting-for-godot/q-and-a/why-is-waiting-for-godot-despite-its-absurdity-a-popular-play-109391 http://elitnotes.blogspot.in/2012/07/absurdity-in-waiting-for-godot-waiting.html Samuel BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting For Godot and The Theater of The Absurd Essay With the appearance of Waiting for Godot at the ThÃ ©Ã ¢tre de Babylone in Paris in 1953, the literary world was shaken by the arrival of a drama so different yet so thrilling that it gave rise to the "Theater of the Absurd". His contribution to this particular type of theater movement allows us to refer to him as the father of the genre. While other dramatists, such as Tom Stoppard, have also contributed to this genre, Beckett remains its single, most lofty figure. It is this type of theater that deals with the absurd aspects of life, to stress upon its native meaninglessness. It is the time and identity of characters that are usually vague or ambiguous in such plays from the theater of absurd. The plays are dreamy and impossible to implement in real life and the dialogues of such plays are irrational and make the play seem absurd because the whole structure of the play is in repetition. In this play, Samuel Beckett emphasizes upon human suffering. The play revolves primarily around Estragon and Vladimir who endlessly wait for something to help overcome their boredom and sins because they seek redemption as mentioned in the play. Godot can be assumed as one of the many wishes that Vladimir and Estragon wait for. Waiting for Godot is part of the Ã¢â¬ËTheater of the AbsurdÃ¢â¬â¢. This implies that it is meant to be irrational and pointless in nature since you do not have a proper moral and conclusion to the play, i.e., it is an open ended play. The readers and audiences can have many conclusions towards the end of the play. The concepts of drama, chronological plot, logical language, themes, and recognizable settings are features of drama that a play from the Theatre of Absurd does not have. We see how the characters of Vladimir and Estrago... ...s with their incoherent colloquy. And above than all, its theme is unexplained meaning that the play does not only have a single theme like adventure or action. Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for GodotÃ¢â¬ is an absurd play for it is devoid of characterization and motivation. Though characters are present but are not recognizable for whatever they do and whatever they present is purposeless. Works Cited Beckett, Samuel. Waiting For Godot. 3rd ed. N.p.: CPI Group, 2006. Print. Vol. 1 of Samuel Beckett: The Complete Dramatic Works. 4 vols http://www.studymode.com/essays/The-Absurdity-In-Waiting-For-Godot-868180.html http://www.gradesaver.com/waiting-for-godot/study-guide/about/ http://www.gradesaver.com/waiting-for-godot/q-and-a/why-is-waiting-for-godot-despite-its-absurdity-a-popular-play-109391 http://elitnotes.blogspot.in/2012/07/absurdity-in-waiting-for-godot-waiting.html
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Copyright Learning Team Weekly Reflection LAW/421 Learning Team D Weekly Reflection Week three focused on copyright infringement, and the legal issues in cyberspace associated with copyright laws. Copyright infringement can be classified into three theories; direct, indirect, and vicarious. Direct is the most obvious form because the copyright owner can prove legal ownership of the work in question and that the infringer copied the work without permission. A facilitator in indirect theory of copyright infringement is liable for damages.The copyright owner must identify the direct infringer, and the facilitator must have knowledge of the infringement. The copyright infringement case against Napster was a landmark case that forced Napster, once a free subscription service, to re-emerge as a paid subscription service. This case changed the way music was bought. Contributory infringement was used against Napster to force them to shut down and change their business model. Understanding th e defense to infringement claims, specifically fair use can be complex. Fair use is the most common defense of copyright infringement.Under the fair use defense, some infringement is permitted if the device can be used in a significant non-infringing way, such as a VCR. With the digital age and the growth of the Internet applying the copyright law has become more difficult for the courts. Photography, music, and software are the biggest areas affected by copyright infringement and issues dealing with cyberspace. Formats such as MP3 have made it easier for infringersÃ¢â¬â¢ to record audio and data files much faster than before, which can make it harder to catch the infringer or facilitators.Software has also become increasingly popular for unauthorized duplication. iTunes has stepped up to adhere to the laws protecting copyright by implementing safeguards to prevent illegal downloads. Digital photography and social networking have opened up new dimensions of copyright infringement issues for photographers. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act has made strides in protecting copyright holders in the digital age by holding third parties responsible and going after parties that illegally download copyrighted aterial. Given that technology is proceeding at a lightning pace, one can only imagine how the music and movie industries are grappling with keeping as much as the profits as possible from their creative works. Although challenging for lawmakers, the advancement of technology in recent years has led to the culmination of new laws and precedent in protection of intellectual property. The Computer Software Copyright Act of 1980 afforded protection to computer software programs.Since then, appellate courts have suggested patents instead of copyrights provide the most appropriate form of intellectual property protection. Copyright infringement and protection is an important issue for all businesses small and large. Most large businesses started out as small busin esses that had a good idea that changed everything. Many small businesses donÃ¢â¬â¢t own patents or copyrights, but as information becomes more and more valuable parts of businesses they are becoming more of a concern. The most valuable part of most companies is their intellectual property.The franchisor must give full disclosure and details that relate to any part of the franchise or company in question under certain terms and conditions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also important to remember to check and see whether the franchiser has established another franchisee or any other promissory agreements. Patent and Trademark lawyers are familiar in these matters and should be consulted upon buying a company with valuable information or if your own company or if patents and copyrights get involved (Steingold, 2005).
Monday, January 6, 2020
Many aspects of our lives, including culture and religion, are fabricated on the basis of conjectures. Although these facts may remain unproven, little harm is inflicted from the possibility of misinformation. Contrarily, in the case of science, the smallest error can lead to severely misguided results and an inability to reach a solution. Dora An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria by Sigmund Freud exemplifies this situation, as Freud reveals an incomplete analysis relying on a slew of unjustified conjectures. During DoraÃ¢â¬â¢s time of treatment, Freud consistently ignores her denials and impresses his frequently outlandish theories on her, which ultimately leads to her early termination of treatment. Freud fails to cure Dora due to his flawedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He continues by comparing himself to an archaeologist for restoring Ã¢â¬Å"what is missing, taking the best models known to [him] from other analysesÃ¢â¬ (7). With this eloquent metaphor, heÃ¢â¬â¢s simply tryin g to validate his use of conjectures and although he claims to inform the reader upon his use of assumptions, the fact remains that his analysis is partially formed on the basis of fabrication. It appears as though Freud is merely trying to convince the reader to trust his diagnosis regardless of its legitimacy as is repeated later with Dora. During one of the first treatments, Dora recounts an unfavorable situation in which Herr K. arranges a meet between Dora, Frau K. and himself. Against DoraÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge Herr K. convinces Frau K. to stay at home to be alone with Dora. Upon her arrival, Herr K. pulls Ã¢â¬Å"down the outside shutters [Ã¢â¬ ¦] and, instead of going out the open door, suddenly [clasps] the girl to him and [presses] a kiss upon her lipsÃ¢â¬ (21). Freud immediately begins to analyze the situation in stating the strangeness of DoraÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction. Instead of eliciting sexual excitement, the encounter evokes a Ã¢â¬Å"violent feeling of disgustÃ¢â¬ (21) and the need to flee. Freud states that any person Ã¢â¬Å"in whom an occasion for sexual excitement elicited feelings that were preponderantly or exclusively unpleasurableÃ¢â¬ (22) is undoubtedly hysterical. With this claim, he gives no concrete evidence to support this theory except his limited knowledge on